The study then assesses the effectiveness and shortcomings of existing responses to militias in Somalia, providing recommendations to national actors, policymakers and practitioners. These forces operate outside of the mandate and framework of the African Union and the United Nations, and harken back to the troubled period of Ethiopia’s intervention in Somalia between 2006 and 2009. Internally displaced women and girls remain at particular risk of sexual and gender-based violence by armed men and civilians. He was accused of insulting public officials, disrupting government work, and spreading propaganda. Interview with the author, Mogadishu, January 2020. The competition between UAE and Qatar over political and economic dominance in Somalia continued to exacerbate intra-Somalia tensions, both between Mogadishu and federal states, and with Somaliland. In response, clan elders and local communities have bolstered their own clan militias as protection — not only against al-Shabaab, but also against the SNA. Somali federal and regional authorities unlawfully detained children simply for alleged ties to Al-Shabab and at times prosecuted in military courts, children for terrorism-related offenses. Nonetheless, rolling back militias in Somalia does not seem feasible at this time, given al- Shabaab’s new momentum and the lack of progress in building up the State’s capacities. The recommendations focus on the following areas: In addition to reviewing the relevant existing literature, this study is principally based on fieldwork conducted in Mogadishu and Baidoa, Somalia, in January 2020. Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice, Human Rights Watch is a 501(C)(3) nonprofit registered in the US under EIN: 13-2875808, Displacement and Access to Humanitarian Assistance, Two Years After #MeToo Erupts, A New Treaty Anchors Workplace Shifts, Holding Companies to Account: Momentum Builds for Corporate Human Rights Duties, As Killer Robots Loom, Demands Grow to Keep Humans in Control of Use of Force, Shutting Down the Internet to Shut Up Critics, With Millions Out of School, the Countdown Begins to Get All Children into Quality, Accessible Education, Going to the Bank for Food, Not Money: The Growing Reality of Hunger in “Rich” Countries, African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) troops, first independent National Human Rights Commission, Military courts continue to try defendants in a broad range of cases, killings, maiming, and the recruitment and use of child soldiers, at particular risk of sexual and gender-based violence, police detained for three days Ali Adan Munim, many of them children and internally displaced. Al-Shabab continues to prohibit many nongovernmental organizations and all UN agencies from working in areas under its control, blockading some government-controlled towns. Security forces, notably police forces, responded with lethal force, killing at least 15 protesters and injuring many others between December 13 and 15, according to the UN. Find relevant information for Somalia on energy access ... Key Problems of the Energy Sector . Ilhan Omar says Trump doing 'what Somali dictators used to do’ ... Somalia embroiled in diplomatic row after expelling UN envoy. As a result of more than 25 years of civil unrest, Somalia’s governance structures have fallen apart, and militias control different parts of the country. The UN explicitly linked the humanitarian situation to climate change, among other factors. These individuals  faced serious abuses, including sexual violence, forced evictions, and limited access to basic needs such as food and water. Avoiding or minimizing the creation of new militia groups; Appropriate vetting of militias prior to integration into the Somali official forces; Steps to end impunity for human rights violations; Provision of human rights and civics training; Establishment of a salary system for militia members integrated into the Somali national forces; Creation of an international payroll for some militias (for example, darwish) conditioned on a serious vetting process for human rights abuses; Developing a strategy for al- Shabaab that prioritizes support to local conflict resolution within communities and across clans. The full case study can be found here. CCCM partners in Somalia play a critical role in administering site­‐level coordination which feeds up to the national level. While Somali authorities seldom investigate cases of killings or attacks on journalists, a Somali media organization reported that the military court in Mogadishu in absentia sentenced to five years a police officer for the July 2018 killing of cameraman Abdirizak Kasim Iman. Somalis fleeing from drought in the Lower and Middle Shabelle regions of the country carry their belongings as they reach a makeshift camp for displaced persons in the Daynile neighborhood on the outskirts of the capital Mogadishu on May 18, 2019. The second part of the study analyses the structural and political drivers of militia formation and persistence in Somalia. The Somaliland government severely restricted reporting and free expression on issues deemed controversial or overly critical of the authorities. UNICEF Somalia Amina, 24, is bringing sustainable solar energy to her community and challenging stereotypes. At the same time, militias may be the best hedge against even more direct intervention by outside actors. Inter-clan and intra-security force violence, often over control of land and revenge killings, led to civilian deaths, injuries, and displacement, as did sporadic military operations, including airstrikes, against Al-Shabab by Somali government forces, African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) troops, and other foreign forces. Rather than respond to the military chain of command, many local SNA units display greater loyalty to their own clan and community interests; they use the SNA to abuse and exploit rival clans. The following introduction is an excerpt from the case study, "The problem with militias in Somalia: Almost everyone wants them despite their dangers," produced by Vanda Felbab-Brown for the United Nations University report, "Hybrid conflict, hybrid peace: How militias and paramilitary groups shape post-conflict transitions," of which Adam Day was the project lead. According to media reports and the UN, between December 31, 2018, and early November, 2019, the government had carried out at least 16 executions, all for alleged terrorism-related offenses. According to humanitarian agencies, over 173,255 people had been evicted, most forcibly, by August 2019, primarily in Mogadishu. The government appointed individuals implicated in serious human rights abuses to high-level positions. Aisha Ilyas Adan, 12, went missing on February 24, and her body was discovered the next day near her home in North Galkayo, Puntland. On January 12, poet Abdirahman Ibrahim Adan (known as "Abdirahman Abees") was arbitrarily arrested and charged with “insulting the police” after he highlighted various due process abuses in Somaliland. Two journalists, Mohamed Sahal Omar and Somali-Canadian Hodan Nalayeh, were killed in a July 12 Al-Shabab attack on a hotel in the southern port city of Kismayo. Al-Shabab  executed after unfair trials individuals it accused of working or spying for the government and foreign forces, with media reporting an uptick in executions mid-year; and extorted “taxes” through threats. In January, when Somalia became a member of the UN Human Rights Council, the federal government expelled the UN head in Somalia, Nicholas Haysom, pointing to a letter in which he had raised human rights concerns around government actions in Baidoa. Ahead of Dec parliamentary elections and Feb 2021 presidential vote, federal govt early Nov appointed federal electoral commission, dispute…. Media and NGOs documented several civilian casualties. This study analyses the pros and cons of relying on militias for security provision and counter-terrorism objectives in Somalia. Sixty-seven percent of this figure is due to indiscriminate and targeted attacks, the majority improvised explosive devices (IEDs) attacks, by the Islamist armed group Al-Shabab. If this issue is not acknowledged and dealt with sooner rather than later, the country could face an even direr situation than it currently is in. Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia (S/2017/1109) Source. As a result, it is imperative that CCCM partners are equipped with guidance in order to continue site-­‐level activities supporting displaced with the ongoing COVID-­‐ 19 pandemic. Poor rains and extended drought over multiple seasons have had a major impact on rural livelihoods and food security in Somalia, pushing the country to the brink of famine, just five years after the crisis of 2011 that claimed the lives of over a quarter of a million people.. Over half of the country’s population -- 6.7 million people –are now acutely food insecure (IPC 2,3 and 4). Humanitarian agencies face serious access challenges due to insecurity, targeted attacks on aid workers, generalized violence, and restrictions imposed by parties to the conflict. These dynamics take place in a fraught political context: tensions have risen between the Government and the federal member states, and there is broader geopolitical and regional competition for influence in Somalia. In late May, the police detained for three days Ali Adan Munim, reporter at the private Goobjoog media outlet, citing Facebook posts in which Ali criticized National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) treatment of detainees and had said he had obtained copies of national exams. Steps should be taken to hold accountable the most egregiously behaving militias. It declared that  2.1 million Somalis face acute food insecurity, as of late September, many of them children and internally displaced. He was acquitted and released on February 25. International support and attention focused on building Somalia’s security sector, improving relations between federal and state authorities, and regional electoral processes. On February 10, the regional court in Hargeisa suspended the Foore newspaper for one year and fined the editor, Abdirashid Abdiwahab Ibrahim, 3 million Somaliland shillings (US$300). Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia (S/2018/800) Source. The ban on Foore was lifted in August. Al-Shabaab remains one of Somalia’s most powerful political and military actors. This study first provides an overview of the evolution and current state of the political, economic and battlefield power of al-Shabaab, alongside the capacities and deficiencies of both the various Somali national security services and the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Hybrid conflict, hybrid peace: How militias and paramilitary groups shape post-conflict transitions, Center for Security, Strategy, and Technology, Russia, China, and the risks of war: My conversation with General Mark Milley, Facing elections and a potential US troop withdrawal, risks to Somalia’s security abound, Nuclear Weapons and American Grand Strategy, Evolving Human Security Challenges in the Atlantic Space, https://i.unu.edu/media/cpr.unu.edu/ attachment/3129/4-LoP-Somalia-final.pdf, 2020 appears to be a good year for counterterrorism, Reflections on the Christchurch commission report. Somalia is not graded in the 2020 Index because of the continuing unavailability of relevant comparable statistics on all facets of the economy. Violence in Somalia first grabbed the attention of Americans in 1993 when 19 U.S. soldiers were killed while supporting a United Nations mission in the Battle of Mogadishu. In August, six UN Security Council member states blocked a bid by Kenya to impose additional counterterrorism sanctions on Al-Shabab that could have jeopardized the delivery of humanitarian aid. Part of the risk of greater foreign intervention in Somalia arises from intensified regional and geopolitical rivalries, which shape local contestations in Somalia — and are also shaped by those local dynamics. In addition, the regions of Somaliland and Puntland have unilaterally declared autonomy. Somalia has been in arrears to the IMF for over three decades—the ... the IMF has welcomed Somalis’ intention to begin making payments on arrears starting in 2020 … The United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) recorded a total of 1,154 civilian casualties by mid-November. The federal Sexual Offences Bill has been submitted before parliament, but had yet to be debated at time of writing. Somalia is marauded with a number of domestic problems including poverty, lack of basic services, national debt, and security issues to name a few, however of all of these problems, the most pressing is the lack of access to clean water that the nation faces. The epidemiology of COVID-19 and its interaction with other diseases in Somalia, and in Africa, is not yet known, but will be revealed in the coming weeks. The newspaper was accused of spreading misinformation after it reported on the building of a new presidential palace in Hargeisa. Ongoing armed conflict, insecurity, lack of state protection, and recurring humanitarian crises exposed Somali civilians to serious abuse. The government has yet to endorse the list of nominees for the country’s first independent National Human Rights Commission. Somalia General Health Risks: Malaria Malaria is transmitted by the night-time - dusk to dawn - biting female Anopheles mosquito. Somalia removes prime minister in no-confidence vote 170 of 178 MPs back motion against Hassan Ali Khaire for failing to move towards democratic elections Published: 25 Jul 2020 Military courts continue to try defendants in a broad range of cases, including for terrorism-related offenses, in proceedings that violate fair trial standards. See, Vanda Felbab-Brown, “The Hard, Hot, Dusty Road to Accountability, Reconciliation, and Peace in Somalia: Amnesties, Defectors’ Programs, Traditional Justice, Informal Reconciliation Mechanisms, and Punitive Responses to al Shabaab,” in The Limits of Punishment: Transitional Justice and Violent Extremism, ed. This strategy based on auxiliary forces competes with ongoing efforts to bolster the State-building effort, including training of the official Somalinational forces (which include the national military, police and intelligence agencies), expanding a defectors’ programme for al- Shabaab and efforts to integrate at least some of demobilized militias into the official security sector. Three men were sentenced to death under Puntland’s 2016 Sexual Offences Act, which includes death penalty sentences for “aggravated” cases of rape. Appointment of electoral commissions, in charge of overseeing upcoming indirect elections, sparked major dispute; tensions rose with Kenya; and Al-Shabaab continued deadly attacks. Cale Salih (Tokyo: United Nations University, 2018). After the Somali government expelled special representative of the secretary-general Haysom, the UN suspended its monthly reporting on human rights issues. Last modified on Thu 15 Oct 2020 09.21 EDT More than 2 million people could face starvation by the end of the summer, unless there are urgent efforts to respond to the drought in Somalia . Efforts have been made to combat this problem, but as of now, they have proved to be relatively ineffective. This trend continued in 2019 as Al-Shabab pursued an aggressive child recruitment campaign with retaliation against communities refusing to hand over children. Embracing militias carries many risks: As this study details, the loyalties of militia groups are fluid, as they are susceptible to recruitment by their enemies and may prioritize their own interests — or those of an external patron — over those of the State. Many local communities deeply distrust and resent the SNA, which they perceive as more of a conglomeration of militias than as a competent State security service. Risk is present throughout the country, including urban areas, risk present at all altitudes. At time of writing, the court’s mandate remained unclear, and no juvenile facilities set up. Although Somalia has a low HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate of 0.7%, about 34,000 people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2009 with about 1600 deaths recorded within the same year. As such, their increasingly central role in the fight against al-Shabaab is a double-edged sword: short-term military gains must be balanced against the militias’ longer-term, destabilizing impact. Somali powerbrokers, subfederal authorities, the national Government and external interveners have all turned to armed groups as a primary tool for prosecuting their interests. The decision to double down on pro-Government militias to address the threats posed by al- Shabaab thus risks producing new drivers of conflict while perpetuating deeply rooted intercommunal tensions. In fact, since 2018, the group has gained momentum and deepened its political entrenchment, prompting some members of the international community to question whether the State-building model is the right approach. Following the December 2018 police violence in Baidoa, key international partners—the European Union, the United Kingdom and Germany—temporarily suspended support to police in the South West State. Instead, policies should be adopted to reduce at least some of the most pernicious effects of militias and to mitigate their worst tendencies, even while working through and with them. Relations between the federal government and the federal member states deteriorated, diverting attention from needed reforms and on occasion resulting in abuses. Foreign actors also instrumentalize Somalia’s militias, undermining Somalia’s sovereignty and entangling the country in geopolitical rivalries that could further destabilize the region. All Somali parties to the conflict commited serious abuses against children, including killings, maiming, and the recruitment and use of child soldiers. The Somali penal code, currently being revised, classifies sexual violence as an “offence against modesty and sexual honor” rather than as a violation of bodily integrity; it also punishes same-sex intercourse. This accounts for … The message from al-Shabab only adds to the government's concerns, especially as it could oppose medical help from international aid agencies just as it … Somalia have high rates of stunting. Federal and regional authorities, particularly in Somaliland, continued to restrict free expression and media freedoms, including by harassing and arbitrarily detaining journalists and perceived critics, and temporarily shutting down media outlets. It also describes the pro-militia arguments made by Somali politicians, government officials, clan elders and international actors. 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